Oceans and Health:Pathogens in the Marine Environment
It is surprising how little is actually known about the fate of wastewater bacteria once they enter the sea. This wide-ranging work is one of the first to unravel the mechanisms determining bacterial sensitivity or survival under these conditions.
The importance of combating infectious diseases has received international attention, p- viding the opportunity for a multidisciplinary approach that combines medicine with other scienti?candtechnologicalcapabilities,notablyinformationtechnology,nanotechnology,and biotechnology. In fact, it has been predicted that the future will bring a merging of these te- nologies with the cognitive and behavioral sciences—major forces that have the potential to balancetheworld’sinequities.Thescienti?ccommunityandworldleadersmustworktogether to use knowledge and its applications to improve the condition of the planet. The connection between infectious diseases and the oceans provides a paradigm for this perspective. A stark global context indisputably frames all human health issues in the twenty-?rst century: the world wide movement of people and goods. Throughout the past half century, international travel has skyrocketed; there are more than 500 million international arrivals per year. The greatest increase has taken place since the mid-1990s. The world has become integrated and global; consequently, the notion that it is possible to successfully eradicate a disease from the face of the planet has become simplistic. Infectious disease is a moving target and climate shifts will affect any disease that has an environmentally sensitive stage or vector. Recognizingsignalsfromclimatemodelsandincorporatingthemintohealthmeasurescanp- videnewopportunitiesforproactive—ratherthanreactive—approachestopublichealth.Thus, careful attention to the role of the oceans in human health can offer new avenues of research that will provide new means of predicting and preventing those diseases that are rooted in the environment. In this volume, pathogens in the sea are reviewed by Colin Munn, who provides a broader perspective for the topic of pathogenic microorganisms associated with the world oceans.
Pathogens in the Sea: An Overview.- Diversity, Sources, and Detection of Human Bacterial Pathogens in the Marine Environment.- Biotic and Abiotic Effects.- Survival of Enteric Bacteria in Seawater: Molecular Aspects.- Human Pathogenic Viruses in the Marine Environment.- Survival of Viruses in the Marine Environment.- Zoonotic Protists in the Marine Environment.- Marine and Estuarine Harmful Algal Blooms: Impacts on Human and Animal Health.- Pathogenic Vibrio Species in the Marine and Estuarine Environment.- Vibrio vulnificus.- Vibrio parahaemolyticus—Seafood Safety and Associations with Higher Organisms.- Global Microbial Ecology of Vibrio cholerae.- Gram-Positive Bacteria in the Marine Environment.- Fecal Contamination in Coastal Areas: An Engineering Approach.- Retention of Pathogenicity in Viable Nonculturable Pathogens.- Thalassogenic Infectious Diseases Caused byWastewater Pollution of the Marine Environment: An Estimate of the Worldwide Occurrence.- Bacterial Pathogens of Marine Fish.- Microbial Diseases of Corals.- Aquaculture and Animal Pathogens in the Marine Environment with Emphasis on Marine Shrimp Viruses.
The release of non-disinfected wastewaters into the marine environment is a common practice all around the world. Consequently, the seas are constantly infused with wastewater bacteria, among them highly pathogenic ones. In view of the public health significance of this phenomenon, it is surprising how little is actually known concerning the fate of such bacteria once they enter the sea. This book therefore looks at the survival, infectivity, pathogenicity and viability of enteric bacteria in the sea. Chapters also detail the public health aspects of wastewater release, civil engineering and economic considerations, other sources of pathogens, and much more.
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